Historical Background of Research in Ayurveda

                           The terminology “Research” is earliest recorded in the 15th-16th Century AD. But, the mere usage of a new term does not rule out the actual concept of research and its utility in earlier times. The existence of established facts in the olden days dating back to several 1000 years BC is the proof of prevailing research in earlier times.

                             Any Established Science and specially the field of medicine have had the trial and error phase in their earlier era. Ayurveda is also a medical science originated and developed by the intellectuals residing in and around India who had the ability to perceive what the nature/environments says. Living amidst the nature was the key in developing the bond with the same. The origin of the two principles, i.e., pancamahabhoota siddhanta and lokapurushasamya siddhanta changed the perception of medical science.

                             Food and regimen are the inseparable parts of human since inception. The earliest populations of human were dependent on raw food materials (vegetables/fruits/meat) rather than processed food. During this practice, many untoward effects on the body would have arisen which necessitated medical care. The earliest vaidya would try out certain herbs during such situations and would have got the conclusion that “The drug X is beneficial when one suffers from the disease Y”. This method over a course of time must have brought out a standard protocol of treatment for the prevailing pathological conditions.

                             The absence of documentation and cons of only oral tradition of knowledge transfer were the important drawbacks. The beginning of documentation under the king’s rule was the significant step in protecting the culture of Ayurveda. Thus, the final outcome of the well planned research and conclusions in Ayurveda were brought out in the names of various samhita such as Carakasamhita, Sushrutasamhita, etc.

                             You might be wondering if Ayurveda did have any proper research technics. The clarification and brain storming points are depicted from here on.

Major Evidences of researches in ayurveda classics:

I Ayurveda Avatarana – Descent of knowledge of Ayurveda

ब्रह्मा स्मृत्वाऽऽयुषो वेदं प्रजापतिमजिग्रहत्|
सोऽश्विनौ तौ सहस्राक्षं सोऽत्रिपुत्रादिकान्मुनीन्||३||
तेऽग्निवेशादिकांस्ते तु पृथक् तन्त्राणि तेनिरे|


II PararthaanumanaPancaavayavavakya

प्रतिज्ञा, हेतुः, दृष्टान्तः, उपनयः, निगमनम्,…(च.वि.8/27)

III Siddhanta

अथ सिद्धान्तः- सिद्धान्तो नाम स यः परीक्षकैर्बहुविधं परीक्ष्य हेतुभिश्च साधयित्वा स्थाप्यते निर्णयः|
स चतुर्विधः- सर्वतन्त्रसिद्धान्तः, प्रतितन्त्रसिद्धान्तः, अधिकरणसिद्धान्तः, अभ्युपगमसिद्धान्तश्चेति|


श्रुतं बुद्धिः स्मृतिर्दाक्ष्यं धृतिर्हितनिषेवणम्|
वाग्विशुद्धिः शमो धैर्यमाश्रयन्ति परीक्षकम्||


IV Pramana/Pareeksha

द्विविधमेव खलु सर्वं सच्चासच्च; तस्य चतुर्विधा परीक्षा- आप्तोपदेशः, प्रत्यक्षम्, अनुमानं, युक्तिश्चेति||


V Vaadamarga

इमानि तु खलु पदानि भिषग्वादमार्गज्ञानार्थमधिगम्यानि भवन्ति; तद्यथा- वादः, द्रव्यं, गुणाः, कर्म, सामान्यं, विशेषः, समवायः, प्रतिज्ञा, स्थापना, प्रतिष्ठापना, हेतुः, दृष्टान्तः, उपनयः, निगमनम्, उत्तरं, सिद्धान्तः, शब्दः, प्रत्यक्षम्, अनुमानम्, ऐतिह्यम्, औपम्यं, संशयः, प्रयोजनं, सव्यभिचारं, जिज्ञासा, व्यवसायः, अर्थप्राप्तिः, सम्भवः, अनुयोज्यम्, अननुयोज्यम्, अनुयोगः, प्रत्यनुयोगः, वाक्यदोषः, वाक्यप्रशंसा, छलम्, अहेतुः, अतीतकालम्, उपालम्भः, परिहारः, प्रतिज्ञाहानिः, अभ्यनुज्ञा, हेत्वन्तरम्, अर्थान्तरं, निग्रहस्थानमिति||


VI Concept of Tantrayukti

Watch the video for detailed explanation.


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